Abstract: Athough first described in the mid-16th century, IE remains considerable cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality to date. Early surgery for IE (defined as valvular surgery within 1 to 7 days of hospital admission) has lately been theorised to confer superior outcomes compared to the current standard of care (i.e. antibiotics with or without delayed surgery).Summary: Infective endocarditis (IE) refers to thew inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium, secondary to an infectious (most commonly bacterial) agent. It affects the left side of the heart more commonly than the right. IE has an estimated incidence of 1.4 to 6.2 per 10,000 persons in the developed countries, and is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, coaguase-negative staphylococcus, Viridans group streptococci and Straptococcus bovis.
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