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Cancer Vaccine, Your T-cell guru: A Bioengineering Approach for Cancer Therapy
Poster Title: Cancer Vaccine, Your T-cell guru: A Bioengineering Approach for Cancer Therapy
Submitted on 28 May 2019
Author(s): Zaween Hanis Bt Mohamad Shamsul, Sam Pei Fong, Chin Chin Liew, Chia Jin Chuah, Turgaa Shini Devaraj, Nur’Awatif Ishak, Sheng Keat Siah, Muhammad Nur Syazwan Md Zin, Kar Cheng Wong
Affiliations: Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya
This poster was presented at The CUBE, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya
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Poster Information
Abstract: Implantable cancer vaccine is an immunotherapy approach, utilizing bioengineering strategies in activating immune cells to destroy tumour. The significance of implantable cancer vaccine development is to serve as an alternative cancer therapy with exquisite specificity and low toxicity, apart from achieving durable treatment effect due to immunological memory. The vaccine is personalized by filling patient’s neoantigens into biodegradable, rod-shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) in the size of an aspirin. This enhances the cellular uptake of neoantigens by antigen presenting cells (APCs), specifically dendritic cells (DCs) which subsequently trigger immune-stimulating effects. The vaccine is introduced directly under the skin, adjacent to the lymph node near tumour site. This enables activation of DCs in vivo, thus eliciting an immune response against the targeted tumour. As compared to unformulated vaccines, the packaging of neoantigens and adjuvant into optimally sized nanoparticles ensures delivery to targeted lymphoid tissues with much greater efficiency. The adjuvant, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, acts by recruiting DCs as immune-system messengers. DCs pose the tumour-specific antigens on their surfaces and present the antigens to T cells, thus activating and reprogramming the T cells to induce anti-tumour immune response. In 2009, this vaccine was initially designed for melanoma, but later it has been developed for other cancer types. In a preclinical study reported in Science Translational Medicine, 50% of the mice showed complete regression of melanoma with two-dose treatment of the vaccine. The promising result inspires hope in overcoming cancer. Currently, the implantable polymer-derived tumour vaccine scaffolds (WDVAX) are in phase I human clinical trial for metastatic melanoma. This MSN-PEI cancer vaccine approach is definitely a giant leap forward in cancer therapy advancement. Summary: -References: • Ali, O. A., Emerich, D., Dranoff, G., & Mooney, D. J. (2009). In situ regulation of DC subsets
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