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DEVELOPING PATIENT SPECIFIC CAROTID ARTERY ULTRASOUND IMAGING PHANTOMS FOR CLINICAL TRAINING USING 3D PRINTING
EP30651
Poster Title: DEVELOPING PATIENT SPECIFIC CAROTID ARTERY ULTRASOUND IMAGING PHANTOMS FOR CLINICAL TRAINING USING 3D PRINTING
Submitted on 07 Nov 2019
Author(s): Inshal Imtiaz, Dr. Wenfeng Xia, Efthymios Maneas, and Dr. Adrien Desjardins
Affiliations: University College London
This poster was presented at BIR Annual Congress 2019
Poster Views: 54
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Poster Information
Abstract:
Introduction
Ultrasound imaging is regularly used for the assessment of carotid artery stenosis, however few avenues of practice exist outside the clinical environment and on actual patients. Our aim was to create a cost effective phantom for use by radiology trainees in order to practice imaging before beginning on patients. To improve this, I created a carotid artery ultrasound imaging phantom, using PVA as the tissue mimicking material.

Materials and Methods
PVA was prepared at 20 w/w% concentration with deionised water in a conical flask placed in a water bath (temperature set at 95 °C) and was continuously stirred for 2 hours (recipe described in Kharine et al., 2003 and Manohar et al., 2004). MRA scan of a patient (Hutter J. et al., 2012) was used to segment the carotid artery and create a 3D printed mould. PVA mixture was poured into the mould and it underwent freeze thaw cycles (1 Cycle = PVA sample kept at -20ºC for 12 hours and 12 hours). Gel wax and glass spheres were utilised to embed the PVA carotid artery.

Results
Acoustic property characterisation of PVA showed us how attenuation increased with frequency and number of freeze thaw (F-T) cycles. The speed of sound of 5 F-T PVA (1557 ms-1) is 1 is very close to that of tissue (1540 ms-1). We were able to produce patient specific model with percentage error of 0.8% and 0.7% between the patient’s MRA scan and ultrasound image of phantom.

Conclusion
This project has produced the first patient specific phantom for the carotid artery that can be used for clinical training. The first study was conducted on how acoustic attenuation can be tuned with each F-T cycles on a wide range of frequencies. Embedding the PVA carotid artery in gel wax is a novel concept, preventing PVA from dehydrating. Addition of glass spheres gave a realistic sonographic look of tissue. The cost of the phantom is approximately £10, so we have created a cost effective clinical training tool.
Summary: DEVELOPING PATIENT SPECIFIC CAROTID ARTERY ULTRASOUND IMAGING PHANTOMS FOR CLINICALTRAINING USING 3D PRINTING
References: Kharine, A., Manohar, S., Seeton, R., Kolkman, R., Bolt, R., Steenbergen, W. and Mul, F. (2003). Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels for use as tissue phantoms in photoacoustic mammography. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 48(3), pp.357-370.
Manohar, S., Kharine, A., van Hespen, J., Steenbergen, W. and van Leeuwen, T. (2004). Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 9(6), p.1172.
Hutter J. et al. (2012) Prior-Based Automatic Segmentation of the Carotid Artery Lumen in TOF MRA (PASCAL). In: Ayache N., Delingette H., Golland P., Mori K. (eds) Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2012.
Jung, G., Kim, B., Shin, K., Park, K., Kim, S. and Song, S. (2011). The optimal volume of 0.2% ropivacaine required for an ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 60(3), p.179
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