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Development of Cancer Treatment over the years
Poster Title: Development of Cancer Treatment over the years
Submitted on 21 Dec 2022
Author(s): Esha Nambiar, Madhura Karve
Affiliations: Pharm D, Bharati Vidyapeeth University
This poster was presented at NMIMS, Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy & Technology Management
Poster Views: 178
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Poster Information
Abstract: Treatment of Cancer in history over the years has been characterised by ups and downs not only because of the complexity of the disease or no fixed regimen for cure or side-effects of the treatment, but also due to the hope and the reality associated with complete remission and cure. The foundation of chemotherapy, which is the most widely used form of cancer treatment, was laid in the late 20th century. Nitrogen mustard was the first chemotherapeutic agent. In the 1960s, surgery and radiotherapy were the main therapies for solid tumours whereas single agent chemotherapy was for liquid tumours. Extensive research was done on understanding the molecular mechanism of cells which led to new mechanisms for administration of drugs. The 1990s marked the birth of liposomal therapy and targeted chemotherapy. To reduce side-effects of chemotherapy and to make it more effective, scientists developed liposomal formulations which is a part of nanostructure based therapy, where drugs were placed in vesicles made of lipid bilayers. Targeted chemotherapy found its role in screening for specific critical molecular targets. It works by influencing the processes that control growth, division, and spread of cancer cells, as well as the signals that cause cancer cells to die naturally. Research to better understand how various hormones influence cancer growth has guided progress in developing many new drugs for breast and prostate cancer treatment. It wasn’t until the 19th and early 20th centuries that major advances were made in cancer surgery. Earlier, it was restricted to complete mastectomy and lumpectomy. Then, cryosurgery using liquid nitrogen spray or a very cold probe to freeze and kill abnormal cells was developed. Due to vast development over the years in mechanical and computer technology, future surgeries with the use of Robotic systems will be able to remove tumours more completely with less surgical trauma. The year 2020 marked the Refinement of Surgical Treatment of Cancer. Radiation Therapy (RT) has evolved from using X rays to employing photon beams due to technological and biological advances like the chemical modifiers or radiosensitizers that make cancer more sensitive to radiation. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is a form of RT that delivers radiation at the time of surgery. Currently, at the forefront of emerging cancer research are immunotherapy and precision medicine. Cancer immunotherapy, synonymously called immuno-oncology, is a form of biotherapy, that uses the body’s own immune system to prevent, control, and eliminate cancer. Some immunotherapy treatments are engineered with genetics to enhance immune cells cancer-fighting capabilities and may be referred to as gene therapies. Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. Cancer treatment has come a long way to provide safe, effective and economical approaches for achieving remission if not cure. Summary: The purpose of this poster was primarily to elaborate the development of cancer treatment over the years and to give an over-view of the direction in which cancer treatment is progressing. It also helps us understand the particular niche areas where the work on cancer treatment has been significant and ground breaking.References: 1. Scott M. Lippman, Ernest T. Hawk; Cancer Prevention: From 1727 to Milestones of the Past 100 Years. Cancer Res 1 July 2009; 69 (13): 5269–5284.
2. Pucci Carlotta, Martinelli Chiara, Ciofani Gianni (2019) Innovative approaches for cancer treatment: current perspectives and new challenges ecancer 13 961
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