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Fiber identification methodology applied on reference paper samples and works of art on paper substrate
Poster Title: Fiber identification methodology applied on reference paper samples and works of art on paper substrate
Submitted on 16 Jan 2020
Author(s): Eleni Tziamourani, Agni Terlixi, Michalis Doulgeridis, Athina Alexopoulou
Affiliations: University of West Attica, Greece, National Gallery of Athens– Alexandros Soutzos Museum, Greece
This poster was presented at European conference: Technart 2015, Non-destructive and micro analytical techniques in art and cultural heritage, April 27-30,2015 Catania, Italy
Poster Views: 150
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Abstract: The present work is focused on the methodology applied for the fiber analysis of reference paper samples and paper samples coming from original works of art using optical microscopy. It is demonstrated that there were differences in the recorded morphological characteristics of fibers
before and after the application of the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) test method “Fiber analysis of paper and
paperboard” (Reaffirmation of T 401 om-03). To achieve the research objectives standard fiber samples of commercially available papers of
known composition and manufacturing technology such as Kozu, Mistumata, Hemp and Gampi were observed under different lighting conditions and magnifications. Furthermore, the paper substrate of
some original works of art was investigated; these works are representative examples of Greek artists of the 8th -20th century and belong to the National Gallery – Alexandros Soutzos Museum (Athens).
Summary: Fibres of Kozu, Hemp, Mitsumata and Gampi were observed under transmitted polarized and semi polarized light and reflected polarized light either directly of after application of the TAPPI T 401 om-03. Observation after application of the TAPPI method led to better dispersion of the fibers, enabled the recording of clearer morphological characteristics and provided the possibility of recording sharper images at higher magnificationReferences: 1. Collings,T., Miller, D., 1978, The identification of oriental paper-making fibres, The paper conservator, Volume 3, pg. 51-79
2. Collings,T., Miller, D., 1979, The identification of non wood paper-making fibres, The paper conservator, Volume 4, pg 10-20
3. Collings,T., Miller, D., 1979, The identification of non wood paper-making fibres: Part 2* The paper conservator,Volume7, pg 24-27
4. Collings,T., Miller, D., 1984, The nature and identification of cotton paper making fibres in paper, The paper conservator, Volume 8, pg.59-71
5. Wilfred A. Cote, 1980, Paper making fibres, A photomicrographic Atlas, Co-published by Renewable Materials Institute and College of Environmental
Science and Forestry and Syracouse University Press
6. Paper Conservation Catalog, Spot Tests. The Book and Paper Group of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works,
7th edition, 1990. Available from:
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