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Medical Student: Move over Stem Cells – Exosomes are Here! What are Exosomes & their role in Regenerative Medicine?
Poster Title: Medical Student: Move over Stem Cells – Exosomes are Here! What are Exosomes & their role in Regenerative Medicine?
Submitted on 11 Nov 2019
Author(s): Amartej Singh Deol MD4 & Advisor: Shivinder S. Deol MD
Affiliations: Anti-Aging & Wellness Center
Poster Views: 774
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Poster Information
Abstract: Stem cells (SC) play a crucial role in all stages of human development from early embryogenesis to regeneration and maintenance in adult life. SC mediate their influence on distal tissues through paracrine secretions of multiple factors rather than local engraftment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from different sites have been studied the most for many regenerative conditions.
All cells secrete several chemicals in bodily fluids initially thought to be waste products and cell debris. Now it is believed that these secretions or Extracellular Vesicles (EV) especially from SC carry out crucial cell-to-cell communications, as well as surveillance and immune functions. EV carry no cellular material, include Apoptotic Bodies, Microvesicles and Exosomes. Exosomes are membrane-bound nanovesicles measuring 30–150 nm and do not get blocked even in distal capillaries (measure 5-10 µm), whereas MSC (measure 8-12 µm) have risk of microvascular occlusions. MSC typically get caught in lungs, spleen, bone marrow, kidneys & liver capillaries.
Exosomes carry packets of information including crucial signaling lipids, proteins, enzymes, micro RNA, and messenger RNA which are incorporated by target cells, thereby exerting key physiological functions with pivotal role in tissue injury regeneration. Exosomes can cross the blood-brain barrier & travel to every cell & organ in the body.
In my research, I reviewed placental MSC Exosomes ultra-centrifuged to remove all particles over 200 nm. These highly purified MSC-Ex are being used in many conditions with promising results. The lack of side effects and ease of use may make MSC-Ex a good choice in regenerative medicine.
Summary: All human cells release chemicals or tiny nano-particles or Extracellular Vesicles (EV) in all bodily fluids. These secretions were initially thought to be waste products or cell debris. It has now been established that these excreted bioactive chemicals are crucial for cell-to-cell communications & numerous other cell functions.
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