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Peptide Therapeutics: Current Status And Future Directions
Poster Title: Peptide Therapeutics: Current Status And Future Directions
Submitted on 09 Aug 2022
Author(s): Sonia Li
Affiliations: Biopharma PEG Scientific Inc.
Poster Views: 172
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Poster Information
Abstract: Peptide drug development has made great progress in the last decade thanks to new production, modification, and analytic technologies. Peptide is a class of compounds formed by multiple amino acids connected by peptide bonds, usually consisting of 10-100 amino acid molecules, which are connected in the same way as proteins, with a relative molecular weight less than 10000.

In recent years, with the development and maturity of peptide synthesis technology, peptide drugs have become one of the hot spots in drug development, and they have been widely used in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tumor, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, hepatitis, diabetes, AIDS and other diseases with broad development prospects due to their wide indications, high safety and remarkable efficacy.

Characteristics of Peptide Drugs
Therapeutic peptides commonly act as hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, ion channel ligands, or anti-infective agents.

Peptides versus small molecules and biologics. Comparison of advantages and drawbacks between peptides and small molecules or biologics
Figure 1. Peptides versus small molecules and biologics. Comparison of advantages and drawbacks between peptides and small molecules or biologics. Source: reference [1]

① Peptide drugs have high safety and high target affinity and are mainly cleared by proteolytic degradation and renal filtration. Their hydrolysis products are amino acids, so the toxicity of metabolites of peptide drugs is generally not considered.
② Peptide drugs tend to use endogenous peptides as templates, which usually have high target affinity and small off-target risk.
③ Peptide drugs are 2 times more likely to be approved for marketing through clinical trials than small molecule drugs, and the average R&D cycle is 0.7 years less. The development of peptide drugs has also been extended to several disease therapeutic areas, including anti-infection, anti-tumor, physiological regulation, pain, heart failure, osteoporosis, diabetes, vaccines, etc. It can be expected that peptide drugs may replace existing small molecule chemical drugs in the near future.
④ Compared with proteins, peptides are chemically synthesized with mature technology, easy to separate from impurities or by-products, high purity, and easy to introduce unnatural amino acids. In contrast, the quality, purity and yield of recombinant proteins are difficult to guarantee; recombinant proteins also cannot introduce unnatural amino acids and cannot be amidated at the ends, as well as have long production cycles and high costs. Peptides are generally less costly than protein and antibody-based drugs and more costly than most small molecule drugs to synthesize.
⑤ Peptides are easily degraded and have a short half-life and high plasma clearance. The biggest problem of peptides is that they are difficult to be taken orally, mainly due to the ease of degradation and difficulty in crossing intestinal mucosa. In addition, peptides are easily hydrolyzed by plasma proteolytic enzymes after entering the blood, which has a short plasma half-life and plasma clearance, affecting the efficacy and route of administration selection, and therefore do not produce drug accumulation effects.
⑥ Peptide drugs may become immunogenic as the number of amino acid composition increases.
Peptide drugs are still facing some challenges, such as problems in drug design and high-throughput screening, manufacturing process and product purity, which lead to substandard product quality or excessive cost and limit the development of peptide drugs. Meanwhile, there is a need not only to discover new peptide drugs but also to find new dosage forms and drug delivery systems so that peptide drugs can continue to maintain stability and activity when they enter the body.

Peptide Drugs Market Size
Up to now, there are more than 80 peptide drugs in the global market, covering a market of more than 30 billion US dollars, And more than 170 peptides are in active clinical development, with many more in preclinical studies.

Peptide drugs approved since 2000, with their targets and indications
Figure 2. Peptide drugs approved since 2000, with their targets and indications, source: reference [1]

According to QYResearch statistics, the global peptide drug market scale was about $15.2 billion in 2010 and reached $28.5 billion in 2018, with a CAGR of 8.17%. Compared with the global pharmaceutical market of about USD 1.3 trillion in 2018, the peptide drug market scale accounts for only 2.19%, and the growth rate of the peptide drug market scale is about 2 times of the overall growth rate of the global drug market scale. It is expected that the future peptide drug market will grow at a CAGR of 7.9%, reaching a market size of $35.8 billion in 2021 and $49.5 billion in 2027.
Summary: In recent years, peptide drugs have become one of the hot spots in drug development. This article describes the current status and future directions of peptide therapeutics.References: [1] Wang, L., Wang, N., Zhang, W. et al. Therapeutic peptides: current applications and future directions. Sig Transduct Target Ther 7, 48 (2022). abuse »
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