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Spatial and Temporal Changes in Chukchi Sea Ostracodes from 1965 to 2013
EP21116
Poster Title: Spatial and Temporal Changes in Chukchi Sea Ostracodes from 1965 to 2013
Submitted on 21 Feb 2014
Author(s): L. Gemery1, T.M. Cronin1 and L.W. Cooper2
Affiliations: 1. USGS National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 2. Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, Solomons, MD
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Poster Information
Abstract: We investigated geographic distributions of benthic ostracode assemblages from Chukchi Sea surface sediments collected during the past 43 years to document benthic meiofaunal community structure and understand the influence of climatic and oceanographic changes. The study region includes continental shelf regions influenced by the Alaska Coastal Current and the northward extension of the Bering Sea Shelf Current (Fig. 1). Results show temporal (decadal and interannual) and spatial variability in ostracode species assemblages and preliminary evidence for a decline in cryophilic species and an increase in temperate taxa most notable during the last decade. These descriptions of ostracode faunal assemblages can serve as a baseline against which future meiofaunal changes in the Bering and Chukchi Seas can be compared.
A total of 37 species were identified in the Chukchi Sea region representing a diverse mixture of species characteristic of Arctic and sub-Arctic continental shelves such as the Beaufort Sea, Siberian Seas (East Siberian, Kara, Laptev) and the Bering Sea (Stepanova et al., 2007; Cronin et al., 2010; Gemery et al., 2013). The dominant taxa are Paracyprideis pseudopunctillata, Sarsicytheridea bradii, and Normanicythere leioderma with secondary species Semicytherura complanata, Cluthia cluthae, Cytheropteron elaeni, Heterocyprideis fascis, Robertsonites tuberculatus, Elofsonella concinna, Pectocythere janae, and Acanthocythereis dunelmensis. Several distinct species group comprised of species with similar ecology can be identified by cluster analysis (Fig. 4). There is, for example, a major group (A) that denote common species P. pseudopunctillata and N. leioderma, a second group (B) with S.bradii, S. complanata, and H. fascis, and a third group (C) with secondary species such as Cytheropteron nodosalatum, Munseyella arctica and Schizocythere sp., which live mainly in coastal regions.
Results shown must be considered preliminary due to gaps in sampling during many years especially prior to 2002. Nonetheless, preliminary interpretation of patterns may reflect changes in coastal and mid-shelf September sea surface temperature (SST), which increased ~2 degrees C° since the 1970s. In the Hanna Shoal area, September SST since 1995 has not been colder than 1°C, whereas in the 1970s-1980s it was commonly <1°C in September. These faunal assemblages provide baseline species data that can be used to evaluate oceanographic and climatic changes in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas both during the last 50 years and during the Holocene interglacial period.
Summary: We investigated geographic distributions of benthic ostracode assemblages from Chukchi Sea surface sediments collected during the past 43 years to document benthic meiofaunal community structure and understand the influence of climatic and oceanographic changes.References: -- Brouwers, E.M., 1994, Systematic paleontology of Quaternary ostracode assemblages from the Gulf of Alaska; Part 3, Family Cytheruridae: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1544, 45 p.
-- Cronin, T.M., et al. 2010. Arctic Ostracode Database 2010. IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series # 2010-081. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO.
-- Gemery, L., T.M. Cronin, L.W. Cooper, J.M. Grebmeier. 2013. Temporal changes in benthic ostracode
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