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The Gut Brain Axis: An Overview
EP39762
Poster Title: The Gut Brain Axis: An Overview
Submitted on 10 Jan 2023
Author(s): Taneem Ilyas, Suha Tarannum
Affiliations: Osmania Medical College
This poster was presented at OSMECON 2022
Poster Views: 352
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Poster Information
Abstract: Even the slightest change in the gut microbiome may lead to disorders of the brain which may be neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative. Many studies have shown that dysbiosis has lead to a significant impact on behavior, memory and cognition causing higher risk of disorders such as autism, depression and schizophrenia. It may also lead degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.

In addition, several factors such as genetics, psychological state, environment and the disturbance of GBA interplay leading to various functional gastrointestinal disorders.
Any disturbances in the motility, gut microbiota, immune function, visceral hypersensitivity and
altered processing of signals in CNS lead to FGIDs like GERD, Irritable bowel syndrome, Functional dyspepsia etc
Moeover, IBS is of particular importance in studies related to the gut brain axis. Being a stress sensitive disorder, it has been on the rise and is often associated with anxiety and depression.

It may also increase the risk of SLE, multiple sclerosis, IBD, RA and spondylo-arthritis.
A study conducted by Dr. Venkat rao, on 39 individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome where
In, half the subjects were given a placebo and another half, a specific strain of lactobacillus bacteria and the
Results showed that those taking placebo were unaffected where as those taking the bacteria Improved drastically. Similar studies have been done in individuals suffering from IBS and autoimmune diseases. (1)
This lead to the evidence of using probiotics as therapy for the aforementioned diseases.
Another area with immense potential is the use of machine learning.
Summary: The gut brain axis (GBA) is a bidirectional biochemical signaling taking place between the git/enteric nervous system and the CNS. This crosstalk between the mind and the gut involves signaling via the enteric sensory afferents to the brain and relay of altered intestinal motility and immune function to the gut. On a microscopic level, this includes alterations in intestinal neurotransmitters and mucosal immune regulation.


References:
1. Rao AV, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Gut Pathog. 2009 Mar 19;1(1):6.

2. Rutsch A, et al. The Gut-Brain Axis: How Microbiota and Host Inflammasome Influence Brain Physiology and Pathology. Front Immunol. 2020;11:604179.

3. Xu H, et al. The Dynamic Interplay between the Gut Microbiota and Autoimmune Diseases. J Immunol Res. 2019;2019:7546047.

4. Cryan JF, et al. The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. Physiol Rev. 2019 Oct 1;99(4):1877–2013.
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